Three Questions

1. What tasks have you completed recently? 

Recently, I have completed catch up notes in physics, research for an importnat paper in English, and multiple Chemistry assignments (Phets, UT homework, lab conclusions, etc.). Specifically, I have reviewed UT homework 15 to get prepared for the upcoming test, and I have reviewed notes on electron configurations.

2. What have you learned recently?

Recently, I have learned about quantum numbers, orbital diagrams, and electron configuration principles. Also, I have learned about what factors impact the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom.

3. What are you struggling with &, therefore, plan to do next?

Currently, I am struggling with understanding the basic concepts behind electron configurations and how those configurations determine ionization energy and atomic radius. Therefore, I plan to review notes and UT homework to hopefully build a better base knowledge.

Shells Activity

In chemistry, Coulomb’s law relates the energy to the distance of electrons from the nucleus of an atom, and the charges present from the charged particles. The relationship is inverse, meaning the further away from the nucleus, the less energy it takes to remove an electron. The charge is also pertinent, as it impacts the equation supporting Coulumb’s law (E= charge/distance). Unlike energy and distance, energy and charge are directly related.

Similar to chemical bonds, the removal of an electron requires activation energy to overcome the attractive forces between the positive and negative charged particles. This makes the process endothermic, instead of exothermic. The amount of energy required to move an electron is dependent on how the electrons are organized within an atom. For example, if an atom is buffered, or shielded, by two electrons in a lower orbital, the atom will experience less less positive charge because it is further away from the nucleus. The other electrons absorb most of the positive force exerted by protons in the nucleus, making it easier to remove.

The energy required to remove an electron is much larger than that needed to excite an electron. Electron excitement simply moves the electron up a shell level, while electron removal takes it completely out of the atom, which is much more difficult to do.

Sources:

http://maxwells-equations.com/fields/charges.gif

http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@api/deki/files/8850/Bohr_Model_of_the_Hydrogen_Atom.jpg

Three Questions 1/16/15

1. What tasks have you completed recently? 

Recently, I have completed many Calculus review assignments, chemistry practice problems, and many online history assignments.

2. What have you learned recently?

Recently, I have learned how to calculate the volume of cylindrical shells in calculus, and in chemistry, I have learned what makes a reaction spontaneous, how to use Hess’s law, and how to calculate enthalpy.

3. What are you struggling with &, therefore, plan to do next?

Currently, I am struggling with the concepts of work, calorimetry, entropy, and energy and voltage. I plan to review my notes and practice problems over the weekend in order to gain a better understanding of these concepts before taking the test on Tuesday.

Three Questions

1. What tasks have you completed recently?

Recently, I have completed multiple online homework assignments in preparation for an AP chem test, and have learned complex concepts in AP Calculus.
2. What have you learned recently?

Recently, I have learned about the limits of the kinetic molecular theory, and how this theory is related to intermolecular forces, among many other similar subjects. In AP English, I have learned how to write a consolidated
3. What are you planning on doing next?

Next, I am planning on improving my performance in AP Calculus in order to improve my grade by the end of the semester.

Intermolecular Forces

During our most recent lab, we experimented with the mechanisms behind solvation, in particular, intermolecular forces. These forces are responsible for the manner in which a solvent surrounds a solute, which is closely related to adhesion and cohesion, and differences in solubility.

In chemistry, solubility is described as the relative capability of being dissolved, or the amount of a solute that will be dissolved in a solvent. Solvation, while similar, is defined as “an interaction of a solute with the solvent, which leads to stabilization of the solute species in the solution”. During this process, the solvent surrounds the solute and pulls the solid molecules apart, surrounding them according to the charges involved (slight positive to slight negative). Simply put, solubility is the likelihood to dissolve, while solvation is the actual process that occurs.

Chromatography, a method that has been utilized used previously in labs related to differences in solubilty, is a set of labratory techniques used to separate solutions. Chromatography is used specifically to separate substances with different solubilities. The mixture at hand is dissolved in what is termed the “mobile phase”, which carries it through another material called the stationary phase. Due to the difference in the rates of travel of the various components of the mixture, which is based off of intermolecular forces and solubility, separation occurs.

Intermolecular forces are the attractive and repulsive forces that act between molecules of a substance, which can be atoms, molecules, or ions. These are not to be confused with intramolecular forces, which act inside molecules between the individual atoms. These forces determine the solubility level of a substance, and play a part in the difference in rates of travel that chromatgraphy is based upon.

In regards to solvation, these forces play a large role in the surrounding of solute by solvent molecules. The intermolecular forces are strong enough to actually pull the solute apart and separate it into ions, allowing the ions to be surrounded by solvent. This was observed in our lab today with the sugar cube and water. Adhesion and cohesion are also affected by intermolecular forces. Cohesion, defined as the “action or property of two of the same molecules sticking together, being mutually attractive”, relates to IMF’s because the level of intermolecular forces determines whether or not molecules are attracted to each other (and to what extent). Adhesion is based off of the same principles, but occurs between two different molecules. Both of these processes are dependent on the intermolecular forces present.

The phrase “like dissolves like” is frequently employed to explain differences in solubility because if a solvent and solute have similar intermolecular forces, solvation is much more likely to occur. This translates seamlessly to chromatography results because the substance component with the intermolecular forces most like the mobile phase travels at a faster rate than the component with differing forces, explaining why substances can be separated in this manner.

Three Questions

1. What tasks have you completed recently?

Recently, I have completed endless calculus assignments, gas law problem worksheets, and difficult English essays. Outside of school, I have completed the second step in the selection process for the United States Senate Youth Program.
2. What have you learned recently?

Recently, I have learned about the utilization of partial fractions in calculus, and about KMT in chemistry. Also, I have learned that being sick in high school is the absolute worst. Unfortunately the world keeps on spinning even when you aren’t in class getting work done.
3. What are you planning on doing next?

Next, I plan on catching up on my studies over the Thanksgiving Break.

Three Questions 11/7/14

1. What tasks have you completed recently? 
Recently, I have completed numerous assignments in AP Chem and Calc, including ones on the fundamental theorem of calculus and gas laws. Outside of academics, I have played a large role in the planning of the Cruces vs Mayfield week.
2. What have you learned recently?
Recently, I have learned about integrals and fundamental theorems in calculus, and have reviewed gas law stoichiometry in chemistry.
3. What are you planning on doing next?
Next, I plan on recuperating from the stress that is rivalry week, and I plan to catch up on my studies.

Electrolysis Lab

In our most recent lab, we went continued our exploration of voltaic cells and electrolysis. Specifically, we observed an electrolysis reaction. At the cathode, reduction was occuring, with a half reaction of H2O (l) + 2e- => 2H2 (g) + 2OH-. At the anode, oxidation was occuring, with a half reaction of 2H2O (l) => O2 (g) + 4H+ + 4e-. We knew that these reactions occured because oxygen and hydrogen gases were collected in the tubes.

IMG_0566-0.JPG

Structurally, a voltaic cell differs from an electrolytic cell because the reaction occurring in a voltaic cell is spontaneous (does not need an external energy source). This means that the electrodes must be placed in solutions of their own ions, because one material will precipitate out of solution, and one will lose electrons, forming more ions. In order to balance the charges in the reaction, a salt bridge must be used. If the solutions were not neutral, the reaction could not occur.

A non-spontaneous redox reaction is a reaction in which outside energy is required. The reaction at hand does not occur spontaneously because the reduction potential is negative, meaning a reduction oxidation reaction cannot occur unless another source of energy is available. For our reaction, a battery was used as an external energy source.

(Still confused on faraday)

Three Questions 10/24/14

1. What tasks have you completed recently? 
Recently, I have completed many calculus assignments in preparation for a test, multiple chemistry labs, and an essay in AP English. Outside of school, I have been preparing for XC district, and I have attended chiropractor and massage appointments, ensuring that my hip is pain free and ready for competition.
2. What have you learned recently?
Recently, I have learned about optimization and other applications of derivatives in Calculus, and in chemistry, I have learned about the differences between voltaic cells and electrolysis.
3. What are you planning on doing next?
Next, I plan on getting ahead in chemistry, and I plan to put the finishing touches on my English essay. Also, I plan to focus on preparations for cross country district and state.

Three Questions

1. What tasks have you completed recently?

Recently, I have completed multiple UT homework assignments, redox and molarity stoichiometry practice problems, and a take home calculus quiz. Outside of school, I have attended multiple family events and gone on long runs every day.

2. What have you learned recently?

Recently, I have learned how to do reverse derivatives and optimizations in calculus, and I have reviewed titrations and how to balance redox reactions in chemistry.
3. What are you planning on doing next?

Next, I plan on studying for and acing my upcoming calc/chem tests and the PSAT. Also, I plan to up my game in cross country in preparation for district and state, which are in the next few weeks.